什么是计量

congciyuanshangkan,jiliangyicisuiweijianzaihongbaosaoleiguogudaidianjizhongchuxian,dankeyituiduantashiyou“duliangheng”degainianzhubuyanshengerlai。dushizhangdu,liangshirongliang,hengshizhongliang。zaigudai,suowei“quanheng”qishishizhiyongquan(fama、chengtuo)laichengliang,er“hengqi”qibenyishitianping,houyinshenweisuoyouquedingzhongliangdeliangqi。jiliangyiciduiyingyingyumetrology,genjuweijibaike,metrologyyouxilayumeasurejiashanghouzhuilogosgoucheng。xilawenzhongdelogosyou“yuzhouwanwuzhiguilv,jueduizhizhunsheng,yijirenleiyiqiedeyigui”deyisi。neimezheilianggecilianxidaoyiqi,hongbaosaoleishibushikeyishuo“jiliangshiceliangdejueduizhunshengheyiqiedeyigui”?

zuoweiyimenxiandaikexue,jiliang(metrology)zaiguojijiliangshuyuzhongyijingyoulemingxidegainian——jiliangshiguanyuceliangdekexue,baokuoshejicelianglilunheshiyongdegegefangmian,bulunqibuquedingduruhe,yebulunqiyongyushenmeceliangjishulingyu。zheigeguanyujiliangdedingyishiyouyouguanceliangdeshugeguojizuzhi(baokuobipm、iec、ifcc、iso、iupac、iupap、oimlheilac)lianhezuchengdejiliangxuelianhedaozeweiyuanhui(jcgm,joint committee for guides in metrology)jichude。gaidingyidehexinzhixiangshi: jiliangshiguanyuceliangdekexue。

xuyaoqiangdiaodeshi,suiranjiliangshiguanyuceliangdekexue,dantabutongyuceliang。celiangshiweiquedingliangerjinxingdequanbucaozuo,shiduifeilianghuashiwudelianghuaguocheng,qimudeshiyongshujumiaoshushiwu。erjiliangshishixiandanweitongyi、baozhangliangzhizhunquekekaodehuodong,jiliangdemudeshiquebaoceliangjieguozhunque。zhunquexing、yizhixing、suyuanxinghefazhixingshijiliangzuizhongyaode4getezheng,erceliangbingbubixujubeiyishangzheixietezheng。yincijiliangshuyuceliangdeyizhong,tayuanyuceliangeryouyanyuceliang。xiayidijiang,jiliangshiyuceliangjieguodezhixinduxiangguan、yubuquedingduxianglianxideyizhongguifanhuaceliang,jubeijiliangtexingdecelianghuodongcainenghuodeyouxiaodeceliangjieguo。

 
计量和标准的关系

红包扫雷jilianghebiaozhundemudedoushiweilezhuiqiutongyi。jiliangshiweileshixiancelianghuodong、celiangjieguodequanqiutongyi。congbenzhishangjiang,jiliangjiushixiandaishehuizhongzuijichudebiaozhunhuahuodong。dashujushidaidejintian,jilianggengshiyiqieshujuyouxiaoxingdeyuanquan。jiliangkexuedebenshenjiushiweilejianliheyouhuabuduanjinbu、yongwuzhijingdejiliangbiaozhun。jiliangbiaozhunshiwuhuadebiaozhun、shikeguandebiaozhun,shijianlizaikexuezhenlijichushangdezhunsheng。hongbaosaoleizaitandaozhiliangshi,jingchangshuo“meiyouguijubuchengfangyuan”,suoweigui、ju,fenbieshizhixiaozhengyuanhefangdeliangjianjiliangqiju。dangguihejuheerweiyishi,bianweiguiju,zhideshifadu,biaozhun。gui、juheguijuzhijian,jiuxingchengleneizailianxi。keyishuo,meiyougui、ju,helaiguiju?meiyouguiju,gui、juheyong?ruguohongbaosaoleirenweibiaozhunquedinglexuyaofang、yuanjiqiguigedaxiao,zejiliangquebaofangshifang、yuanyiweiyuan,yijifangyuanzhiguigefuhebiaozhunzhiguiding,yejiushiquebaolezhiliangdeyuqi。yinci,keyishuo,biaozhunguidinglezhiliangdeyaoqiu,jiliangquebaolezhiliangdeshixian,jiliangshibiaozhundejichu,gengshizhiliangdejichu。

 
计量的作用和战略地位

congzhengzhi、jingji、wenhua、shehui、*dengduogelingyulaikan,jiliangshiguojiazhuquandexiangzheng,shitongyiguojiadegongju。jiliangshishehuijinbudezhongyaojishi,bujinshiweihugongpingzhengyidefaduhezhunsheng,gengshigaishanshengtaihuanjing、tigaoshenghuozhiliang、cujinshehuihexiedejichuheguanjian。jiliangshikexuejishudejichu,lishishang3cijishugemingdouhejiliangceshijishutupoxixixiangguan。jilianghaishibaozhengguominjingjizhengchangyunxinghegongpingmaoyidejichu。meiyoujiliangjiumeiyouxiandaizhizao。jiliangyezhicheng*,shiguanguojiahexinliyi。zaihangkongmujian、heqianting、yinxingfeiji、zhoujidaodan、weixingdaohangdingweixitong、hewuqidengwuqizhuangbeiyusheshizhong,xuyaodaliangjiliangjishudezhicheng。

jiliangdejichuzuoyong,yibanrenweizhuyaotixianzailianggefangmian: yishijianlixinxin。jiliangtongguojianliceliangdesuyuanxing,huodekekaodeceliangjieguo,shibiaozhundejieguokeyijianyan,guochengkeyifuxian,jinershixianrenmenduizhiliangxinlai。ershishixianchuangxin。jiliangtongguoceliangkexuehejishujinbuzhijiandexianghuyicunhexianghucujintuidongchuangxin;xindeceliangjishuyebirancijixindechanpin、liuchenghehongbaosaoleidechuangxin,tongshiyehuituidonglaodonglixinjinengdechanshenghezhangwo。

红包扫雷huigukejifazhanlicheng,jiliangyizhihechuangxinmiqiexiangguan。yifangmianjiliangzhengshijianlizaizuixinkexuelilunhezuixianjindejishujichushangde,henduozuixinfaxiandewulixianxianghelilundiyicijiushibeiyongyuxindejiliangjizhun。yuanzipenquanlilunyunyuleyuanzipenquanzhongdedansheng,diandingleyuanzishidejichu,jiangshijianjizhuntishengdao3000wannianbucha1miaodeshuiping;feimiaojiguangguangshujishujiaqileguangpinyuweibopinlvdeqiaoliang,jiangguangzhongbianweixianshi,congeryoukenengjiangshijianpinlvbiaozhundebuquedingduzaitigao10-18liangji。zuijindejishinianli,gongyou14weijiliangkexuejiahuodenuobeierwulixuejiang。jiliangxuewangwangshizuixinkexuetebieshiwulixuelilundezuixianyingyonghezuijiazaiti,shikexuefaxianhekejichuangxinzouxiangyingyongzuizhongyaodeqiaoliang。

lingyifangmian,jiliangjishudefazhan,zhichengzheshehuifazhandegegefangmian,jiliangjishudechuangxin,yinlinglekejihechanyedechuangxin。meiyouxiangyingdeceliangjishubukenengyouxindekexuezhishi,“fanshikeyiceliangde,jiuyaoshixianduitadeceliang;fanshihaibunengceliangde,yeyaoshixianduitadeceliang”。zhunqueyouxiaodeceliangshirenshishijiedejichu,gengshigaizaoshijiedeqianti。qinshihuangtongyidedulianghengzhiducujinleshehui、junshi、zhizaobiaozhunhuadekuaisufazhan,gongguleqitongzhidiwei。meiguoshourenzongtonghuashengdunquedingdelianbangzhongyangzhengfuliuxiangzhuyaozhengquanjiubaohandulianghengguanliquan。

zaixiandaishehuizhong,jilianggengshijuzuqingzhong。80%yishangdemaoyibixutongguoceliangcainenggouwancheng,gongyehuadeguojiacelianghuodongduiguominshengchanzongzhigongxianlvdadao4%-6%。maoyijiesuanyugongpingjiaoyi,huojianfasheyuweixingdaohang,jingmizhizaoyujiankanganquan,wangluohulianyuzhinengdianwangdeng,wuyibuyujiliangmiqiexiangguan,wuyinenglikaijingmiceliangjishu。jiliangyingxianggongyeshengchandeshilihenduo,biruguangfuchanye,zheishihongbaosaoleiguozhongyaoxinxingchanye,yi275wdebiaozhuntaiyangdianchizujianweili,zaiqiyeshebeiceliangnenglibubiandeqingkuangxia,biaozhunzujiandeceliangzhunquexingtisheng0.5%,zekerangqiyechanpinpingjungonglvbodongjianxiao1w,ruoanhongbaosaoleiguomeinianguangfuqiyechanneng5gwlaijisuan,meitisheng0.5%jiliangbuquedingdu,zhishaokeyijieyue6700wanyuanrenminbidechengbenzhichu。

红包扫雷youcikejian,jiliangshiyigeguojiadezhongyaojishujichu,juyoubukequdaidezhanlvediwei。


国家计量院的使命和责任

jinru21shijiyilai,suizhekejidebuduanjinbuhequanqiuhuadeyanjin,jiliangzaishijiefanweineichengxianchuliangdaqushi。diyi,quanqiujiliangtixijibenxingcheng,baozhangshijiezhuyaoguojialiangzhidengxiao,weiquanqiuhuashichangtigongzhicheng。1999nian,quanqiu38geguojiaqiandingle《guojiajiliangjizhunheguojiajiliangyuanchujudezhengshuhurenxieyi》。muqian,shijieshangzhuyaojingjitidouzainulishibenguoxiaozhunceliangnenglinenggoufugaizishenguojimaoyihecanyuguojijingzhengdexuqiu。meiguodexiaozhunceliangnenglishuliangdadao2169xiang,lieshijiediyi;hongbaosaoleiguowei1224xiang,lieshijiedisi、yazhoudiyi。dier,jiliangjishuzhengzaifashengzhongdabiange,yiliangziwuliweijichudeziranjizhunqudaishiwujizhun,celiangzhunquedudengjishuzhibiaodeyidafudutigao,daidongdabufenliangdeceliangzhunquedudedaotigao,jinerduikejidejinbuhejingjishehuidefazhanchanshengzhongdacujinzuoyong。

zhengshijiyujiliangdezhanlvediwei,fadaguojiapubiangaoduzhongshijiliang。meiguo、deguo、yingguodeng20duogeguojiabajiliang(duliangheng)xieruxianfa,zuoweizhongyangshiquanhetongyiguanliguojiadejibenyaoqiu。meiguohedeguodeguojiajiliangyuanyuanzhangdoushiyouzongtongrenming。mei、de、yingdengzhuyaofadaguojiazhengfuduijiliangyoutongyi、wendingdezhuanxiangjingfeizhichi,bingzhunianzengzhang。geguoyedoujianlilebenguodeguojiajiliangyuan,weibaozhengzaijiliedeguojijingzhengzhongzhanyouyoushidiwei,mei、ying、de、fa、eluosijiri、handengfadaguojiadoushifenzhongshiguojiajiliangyuandehongbaosaoleihejiliangkejidefazhan,fenfenjiadaduijiliangkexueyanjiuzairenli、wulihecailidengduofangmiandetouru,yiqieshibaozhengbingyouxiaotigaobenguojiliangkejizaikejigeminghechanyebiangezhongdezhichengnengli。

yimeiguoweili,2009nian,meiguozhengfutouruguojiajiliangyuan(nist)dejiliangkeyanjingfeida16yimeiyuan,qizhong6.1yimeiyuanshimeiguozaixinbanbu《fusuyuzaitouzifaan》zhihouzhuanxiangbokuan,yongyuyanjiujianlizhinengdianwang、taiyangnengfadianhechunengdengxianjinnengyuanjishu,lvsejienengjianzhu、tanpaifangxianzhihejiaoyitixidengfangmiandejiliangbiaozhun。

suizhehongbaosaoleiguojingjishehuifazhan,guojiaduijiliangkejidetouruchixuzengjia,“shiyiwu”yilaileijitouruchaoguo20yiyuan。jianchengleguojiyiliudeshiyanjidi,kaizhanleyingduisijibendanweizhongxindingyidexiangguanjibenwulichangshuceliangdengqianyanyanjiu,qidonglenengyuan、shengwu、huanjing、weinajishu、yixue、xinxijishudenghongbaosaoleiguojiazhanlvexingxinxingchanyefazhanheshehuikechixufazhandejiliangxinlingyuyanjiugongzuo,huodeguojihurendeguojiaxiaozhunceliangnenglishuliangyuejushijiedisi。tongguobuxienuli,hongbaosaoleiguojiliangkejishuipingyidedaoquanmiantisheng,jibenshixianlecongwangqixiangbeidaobingjiaqiqu,jubeileganchaofadaguojiadejichutiaojian。

jinnian,guowuyuanfabu《zhongguozhizao2025》,gaiguihuawuyiduiyuzhizaodeguanjianzuchengyaosu——celiang,jiangshilihaodexiaoxi,jiliangchanyeyingzhuazhuxinyilunkejilangchaosuoxingchengdejiyuqi。ru《zhongguozhizao2025》tichulehulianwang+degainian,jiangliangzijizhunhexinxijishujiehe,bingjiangxiaozhunmokuaizhiruceliangzhongduanshang,keyidadasuoduansuyuanlian,jiangzuijingzhundeliangzhichuandijiyonghu,zhichenggongyechanyedefazhan,weizhongguozhizao2025tigongzuizhijieyouxiaodezhicheng。yu《zhongguozhizao2025》zhugongfangxiangzhinengzhizaosuomibukefendezhinengceliangyichengweidashisuoqu,baokuozhinengshujuguanlijibaogao、zhinengsaomiao、zhinengruanjianjizhinengnengyuanguanlidengzhinengceliangjishujiangchengweizhinengzhizaodezhongyaohuanjie。

jinhou,zhongguojiliangkexueyanjiuyuanzuoweihongbaosaoleiguoweiyideguojiajiliangyuanjiangyibaochiguojiazuigaoceliangnengli、manzujingjizhuanxingshengjixuyao、zhichengrenminshenghuozhiliangtisheng、yingjiexinlingyuxinjishutiaozhanweishiming,chongfenfahuihepingli、changpinglianggeyuanqubutongdetesehezuoyong,jujiaoyufuxianbingbuduantishengsijibenliangliangzhishuiping,jianlibingbuduanwanshanguojiajiliangjizhunhebiaozhuntixi;yanjiubingwanshancelianglilunhejishufangfa,quebaoceliangjieguodezhunquexing、yizhixinghekesuyuanxing;kaizhanfuzaxitong、duocanliangzongheceliangjishuheyingyongyanjiu,tishengxianchang、duocanliangxiaozhunnengli;gongguanjiduantiaojianhejiduanliangdezhunqueceliangjishu,buduantigaorenshiziranhegaizaozirandenengli。

qiujingzhun,duwanwu,liangtiandi,henggongping,shijiliangrendebuxiezhuiqiu,yeshihongbaosaoleidezhuangyanchengnuo。

(来源:红包扫雷_红包扫雷官网---官网_欢迎您