红包扫雷guangyideguojijiliangju(bipm)shizhi《mizhigongyue》chenglidezhengfujianguojijiliangzuzhi,gechengyuanguotongguogaizuzhigongtongkaizhanjiliangkexueyujiliangbiaozhunyouguangongzuo。bipmdechengyuanbaokuomizhigongyuezhengshichengyuanguoheguojijiliangdahuifushuchengyuanlianglei。jiezhi2019nian7yue,gongyou59gezhengshichengyuanguohe42gefushuchengyuanguohejingjiti。zheixiechengyuanbaohanle193gelianheguochengyuanzhongde109ge,nangkuolesuoyougongyehuaguojiahezhuyaomaoyiguo,chengyuandeguoneishengchanzongzhizhihezhanquanqiuguoneishengchanzongzhide98%。zuzhijingfeizhuyaolaiyuanyuchengyuanguohuifei,2016zhi2019niandenianduhuifeiwei11,980,000ouyuan,genjulianheguohuifeibiechengyiyidingxishuyouzhengshichengyuanguofentan。

红包扫雷di26jiecgpmdahuiquedinglebipmdesangemubiao: daibiaoshijieceliangjie,zuidachengdudikuodaqishouzhonghetishengqiyingxiangli;zuoweichengyuanguojiankexuehejishuhezuodezhongxin,yifeiyongfentandefangshitigongkaizhanguojiceliangbiduidenengli;zuoweishijieceliangtixidexiediaozhe,quebaogaitixijichukebiheguojirenkedeceliangjieguo。bingtongguoyixiagongzuobuchongbipmdeshimingyugongzuomubiao: zhizaishixianchengyuanguojianjiliangnenglidequanqiupinghengdenenglihongbaosaoleigongzuo;zhizaiquebaobipmdegongzuofahuizuidaxiaolidezhishichuanbogongzuo。

xiayidebipmyizhiweiyufaguobalisaifuledebipmmishuchu,fuzebipmderichangyunxingbingchengdanguojijiliangdahuiheguojijiliangweiyuanhuidemishuchuzhineng。qijigoushezhibaokuojuzhang,wulijiliang、shijian、dianlifushe、huaxuesigekeyanchu,yijijuzhangbangongshi、guojilianluoyuhezuobu、zonghehongbaosaoleibusangezhinengbumen,yuangongbaokuolaiziduogeguojiade70yumingzhengshiyuhetongzhirenyuanhe40yumingjiediaorenyuan。laiziyingguoguojiawuliyanjiuyuan(npl)demading·mierdun(martin j.t. milton)boshizi2013nian1yue1riqirenjuzhang。

红包扫雷guojijiliangjudegongzuohehongbaosaoleizhuyaobaokuo: 1、kexuejishugongzuo,yunxingwulijiliang、shijian、dianlifushe、huaxuesigekeyanchu;2、jishuhongbaosaolei,baokuozuzhibufenguojiguanjianbiduiheshuangbianbidui,xiangchengyuanguotigonghuaxue、dianxue、dianlifushe、shijian、zhilianglingyudexiaozhunhongbaosaolei,tebieshibaocunguojiqiankeyuanqibingtongguoxiangchengyuanguotigongxiaozhunbaozhenggeguozhiliangjizhunxiangguojiqiankeyuanqidesuyuan(qiankezhongxindingyihourengranxiangyixiechengyuanguotigongxiaozhunhongbaosaolei),tongguo《shijiangongbao》(bipm circular t)meiyuefabuguojiyuanzishiheshijiexiediaoshi;3、guojixiediaogongzuo,tongguochengdanguojijiliangzixunweiyuanhuidemishuchuzhinengxiediaoguojijilianggongzuo,yugechengyuanguoguojiajiliangyuan、quyujiliangzuzhihexiangguanjishigeguojizuzhikaizhanlianluoyuhezuo,juban《mizhigongyue》kuangjiaxiadegeleihuiyideng;4、nenglihongbaosaoleiyuzhishichuanboxiangmu,bangzhufazhanzhongchengyuanguojijingjitijianlihefazhanjiliangnengli;5、weihuhefabujiliangshujuku,baokuoguojiguanjianbiduishujuku(kcdb)、jianyanyixuehetiwaizhenduanshujuku(jctlm database)deng;6、bianzhihefabuchubanwu,baokuo《guojidanweizhishouce》(si brochure)、《guojijiliangmingcishuyudaoze》(vim)、《celiangbuquedingdupingdingdaoze》(gum)、guojijiliangqikanmetrologia、《shijiangongbao》(bipm circular t)deng。

红包扫雷zhongguoyu1976nianjingguowuyuanpizhunyizhengshichengyuanguoshenfenjiaru《mizhigongyue》,muqianshiquanbu10geguojijiliangzixunweiyuanhuichengyuan。zhongguodehuifeibilizi2016nianqiwei9.35%,nianjiaonahuifeiyue112wanouyuan,zaiquanbuchengyuanguozhongweiliedisan。zhongguojiliangkexueyanjiuyuanyubipmzaishipinanquan、shijianpinlvlianggelingyuqianyoushuangbianhezuoxieyi,zhudaolezhizaibangzhufeizhouguojiatigaoshipinanquanhemaoyijianceshuipingdezhenjundusubiaozhunwuzhideyanjiuheyingyongxiangmuhejiyubeidoudeshijianpinlvchuanshuxiangmu。

BIPM职责的历史沿革

zuoweizuigulaodeguojizuzhizhiyi,bipmyiyou140duoniandelishi。suizheguojijiliangdefazhan,bipmdejiaosedingweihezuzhijiegoubuduanyoudiaozheng。

chenglizhichu《mizhigongyue》fuyudezhize,jibaocunguojiyuanqi(miheqianke),kaizhanguojibidui,tigongliangzhisuyuan,yizhichixuzhijin。danshitadegongzuolingyucongzuichuzhiyouzhangduhezhiliang,houzhujiankuozhandaodianxue(1927nian)、guangduyufushedu(1937nian)、dianlifushe(1960nian)、shijianpinlv(1988nian)hehuaxue(2000nian),fanyinglejiliangkexueyujishudefazhan。cong“mizhi”fazhandaosi,bipmshizhongshiqizuizhongshideshouhurenhechuanbozhe。1967nian,shijiandanwei“miao”dedingyiyoutianwenmiaozhuanbianweiyuanzimiao,bipmzewupangdaidichengdanqileguojibiaozhunshijian——shijiexiediaoshi(utc)dechanshenghefabuzheiyiguanjianzhize,chengweidangjinguangfanyingyongdeweixingdaohangdingweixitongbukehuoquedejichu。

1999niancipm mradeqianshu,biaozhizhebipmdedingweifashenglishixingzhuanbian,congyigedanchundejishuxingjigouzhuanbianweijishuheguanlibingxingdejigou,danfuqixiediaoquanqiurmohenmidezhongyaozhize。

红包扫雷2018nian11yuetongguodesizhongxindingyi,chedizhongjieleguojiyuanqidelishishiming,yejiangdailaibipmdeshiminghezhizegengshenkedegaibian。ruheshigulaodezuzhihuanfaxindehuolishibipmmianlindeyanjuntiaozhan。jinnianlai,bipmyizaizhanlvemubiao、jigoushezhi、gongzuoneirongshangjinxingleyixiegaigeyudiaozheng。

zaizhanlvemubiaofangmian,di26jiecgpmdahuiquedinglebipmsangemubiao,fanyingchuqiguojixiediaohelianluozhinengdeqianghua。bipmyujin30geguojizuzhibaochihezuohuolianluolianhe,yuxiangguanguojizuzhichenglibingfuzeyunxingsangelianheweiyuanhui: guojijiliangjuyuquyujiliangzuzhilianheweiyuanhui(jcrb)、shiyanshiyixuesuyuanlianheweiyuanhui(jctlm)、jiliangdaozelianheweiyuanhui(jcgm);yuxiangguanguojizuzhizucheng“guojizhiliangjichuwangluo”(inetqi),zhiliyuquanqiuzhiliangjichudefazhan,gongtongyingduiqihoubianhua、yiliaojiankang、huanjingbaohudengquanqiuzhongdatiaozhan。

zaijigoushezhifangmian,qikexueyanjiugongzuo(shiyanshi)zhubuweisuo,guojixiediaoyuwailianzhinengbuduanqianghua。bipmcengxianhoushelizhangdu、zhiliang、dianxue、guangduyufushedu、dianlifushe、shijian、huaxuedengshiyanshi,muqianshiyanshishuliangjianshaodao4ge,zhilianghedianxueshiyanshihebingweiwulishiyanshi,zhangdujiguangduyufushedushiyanshiyiguanbi。zaixingzhengguanlifangmian,bipmshelileguojilianluoyuhongbaosaoleibu,bingyouzhuanmendebumenfuzecipm mradeyunxingguanli,danrenyuqitaguojizuzhigongtongchenglidelianheweiyuanhuidemishuchu,yijichubanqikanmetrologiadeng。

zaigongzuoneirongfangmian,shouxianshiyucipm mraxiangguande,tongguozhidinghexinbiduijihua,diaozhengcmcjiegouhejianshaoqishuliang,youhuacmcpingshenchengxudengdeng,zhelitigaocipm mradeyunxingxiaolv,jiangdinmidegongzuofudan;tongshi,tongguomianxiangyonghudekcdbshujukudegaiban,jiaqiangyuqitaguojizuzhidehezuodengdeng,kuodacipm mradeshouzhongmianheyingxiangli,chongfenfahuijiliangsuyuanxingdezuoyong。qicishiyu2016nianqidongnenglihongbaosaoleihezhishizhuanyi(cbkt)gongzuo,mubiaoshibangzhufazhanzhongguojiatishengnengli,shigengduonminenggoushizhixingcanyucipm mrabingfendanqiyunxinggongzuo,shixianchengyuanguojianjiliangnenglidepingheng,baozhengbipmdegongzuofahuizuidaxiaoli,yucitongshi,tongguobufenchengyuanguodeziyuanxingzhichi,buduanxiangbipmshusongjiediaorenyuan,baozhengqirenliziyuandekechixufazhan。

BIPM为国际单位制重新定义所做的工作

红包扫雷zi1960nianjianliyilai,tebieshisuizheyuanziwuliheliangzijiliangdegeming,silijingduocizhongyaodegaibian,miao、mihedianxuedanweidedingyiyijianlizaileyuanziheliangzixianxiangzhishang,celiangzhunquedusuizherenleirenzhishuipingdetigaobuduantuposhangxian,danqiankededingyiqueshizhongweiyourenhegaibian。2018nian11yuecgpmdahuitongguodesixiuding,shiyicizuigenbenxingdebiange,paoqilezi1889nianyilairenleishizhongyilaidezhiliangdanweidejichu——guojiqiankeyuanqi,jiangsidanweiwanquanjianlizaijibenwulichangshu(huoyuedingchangshu)zhishang。zuoweisizhongshideshouhuzhe,bipmzailicisidebiangezhong,douqidaozhongyaodezuzhi、xiediaohetuidongzuoyong。congshangshiji90niandaiqi,zaicipmdelingdaoxia,bipmweibenlunsidezhongxindingyizuoledalianggongzuo。

shouxianshiquebaoxindingyidekexuexingheliangzhidechixuxing。baokuo: yanjiuquedingsijibendanweidexindingyiheshijifuxianfangfa(mises en pratique),rujianlibipmdegonglvtianping,canyuafujiadeluochangshuguojihezuodeng;zaidingyixiugaiqianliyongguojiqiankeyuanqiweizhuyaojigeguojiadeyuanqijinxingliangzhichuandi,zuzhifuxianqiankexindingyijizhunzhuangzhideyanjiuxingbidui;yanjiuxindingyishishihoudezhiliangliangchuanfangfa,jianli“zhiliangcankaobiaozhunzu(ensemble of reference mass standards,erms),bingjiangzuzhixindingyishishihouzhiliangjizhunzhuangzhidedingqibidui,jixuchengdanweichengyuanguotigongzhiliangliangzhichuandiderenwu,dengdeng。

qicishizhichengcgpm、cipmheccdegongzuo,wanchengsixiudingdejuecehequedingjutishishifangan。zaicipmlingdaoxia,xiediaoquantichengyuanguodetaidu,fahuichengyuanguodeliliang,xianhou4cizaicgpmdahuishangtaolunsixiudingdeyitibingtongguoxiangguanjueyi。chengdanquanbu10geccdemishuchugongzuo,zhidingheshenchashixianzhongxindingyidejishutiaojian、luxiantuyijixindingyideshijifuxianfangfa,xiezhuccutaolunhequelisijibendanweixindingyidebiaoshu,wancheng《guojidanweizhishouce》degaiban,dengdeng。

zaicishizhichixinsidexuanchuantuiguanggongzuo。chengdancipm“xinsituiguanggongzuozu” (tgsi)demishuchu,shezhizhuanmenrenyuan,shejizhizuoxinsituiguangsuoxudegezhongtongyongziliao,rusibiaoshitu、sipinpaishu(brand book)、sichangjianwenti、guojijiliangrihaibaodeng,zaibipmwangzhangongkaifabugonggeguoshiyong。tongshiguligeguozai2018nian5yue20rizhi2019nian5yue20rideyinianshijiannei,zuzhizhenduibutongshouzhongdexuanchuantuiguanghuodong,bingfenxianghuodongdechengguo,youqishiyi2019nianshijiejiliangrixinsishengxiaoweiqiji,zaiquanqiufanweineixianqiyouyibosixuanchuandegaochao,tigaoshehuidejiliangyishi。

红包扫雷guojijiliangdahuishizai《mizhigongyue》kuangjiaxia,youguojijiliangjuchengyuanguodaibiaoheguojijiliangdahuifushuchengyuanguohuojingjitidaibiaocanjiadedingqizhaokaideguojihuiyi,shijuedingguojidanweizhiheguojijiliangjuxiangguanshiwudezuigaoquanlijigou。

红包扫雷guojijiliangdahuidezhuyaoneirongshi: tingquguojijiliangweiyuanhuidegongzuobaogao;taolunheshenchaguojidanweizhituiguanghegaijindegongzuoanpai;pizhunguojifanweineixindegenbenxingdejiliangjuedinghegeleikexuejueyi;juedingyouguanguojijiliangjujigouhefazhandesuoyouzhongyaoshixiang,baokuopizhunguojijiliangjuhuifeihejuedinggechengyuanguohuifeidejisuanfangfa;xuanjuguojijiliangweiyuanhuiweiyuan,dengdeng。

guojijiliangdahuiyouguojijiliangweiyuanhuizhaoji,zhishaomei6nianjuxingyici,huiyidizhigudingweifaguobali。canjiadahuidedaibiaobaokuoguojijiliangjuchengyuanguodezhengfudaibiaoheguojijiliangdahuifushuchengyuanguohuojingjitidezhengfudaibiao。guojijiliangweiyuanhuiweiyuanyouquanchuxidahui,tongshiyikezuoweisuozaichengyuanguozhengfudedaibiao。dahuizhuxiyoushirenfaguokexueyuanyuanzhangdanren,guojijiliangweiyuanhuimishuzhangtongchangbeixuanjudanrendahuimishuzhang。jinchengyuanguoyoutoupiaoquan,meigeguojiayipiao。xuanjuguizeyibanshiyongjueduiduoshuguize,danyuhuifeitigaohehuifeijisuanfangfaxiudingyouguandejueyibixuzaimeiyouguojiafanduideqingkuangxiacainengtongguo。dahuiyitoupiaofangshixuanjuguojijiliangweiyuanhuiweiyuan。

红包扫雷diyijieguojijiliangdahuiyu1889nian9yuezhaokai,18gechengyuanguodaibiaochuxi。qijin,guojijiliangdahuiyijuxingle25jie。1960nian,di11jieguojijiliangdahuijuedingcaiyongyimi(m)、qianke(kg)、miao(s)、anpei(a)、kaierwen(k)hekandela(cd)zuoweijibendanweide “guojidanweizhi”(si),zheishizi《mizhigongyue》qianshuyilaijuyouzuishenyuanyiyidezhongdajueding。1971nian,di14jieguojijiliangdahuiyoujuedingzengjiawuzhideliangdedanweimoer(mol)zuoweijibendanwei,zhicisigongyou7gejibendanwei。1999nian,di21jieguojijiliangdahuitongguojianli《guojiajiliangji(biao)zhunheguojiajiliangyuanqianfadexiaozhunyuceliangzhengshuhurenxieyi》(cipm mra)dejueyi。2011niandi24jieguojijiliangdahuihe2014niandi25jieguojijiliangdahuifenbietongguoguanyusiweilaixiudingdejueyi,tichujiangqianke、anpei、kaierwenhemoerdedingyifenbieyupulangkechangshuh、jibendianhee、boerzimanchangshukheafujiadeluochangshunadezhunqueshuzhilianxiqilaidejianyi,guligeguoguojiajiliangyuanyuguojijiliangjugongtongkaizhangongzuo,shijibenwulichangshucedingdebuquedingdudadaoxiangguanyaoqiu。2018nian11yue13zhi16rizhaokaidedi26jieguojijiliangdahuiquanpiaotongguoguanyusijibendanweizhongxindingyidezhongdajueyi。

guojijiliangweiyuanhuishiguojijiliangjudeguanlihejiandujigou,youlaizibutongchengyuanguode18weiweiyuanzucheng。

guojijiliangweiyuanhuiyu1875nianyou《mizhigongyue》chuangli。zhuyaozhizeshizaiguojijiliangdahuideshouquanxia,juecehetuijinguojijiliangjudegongzuo;xiangchengyuanguozhengfufabuguojijiliangjunianduxingzhenghecaiwubaogao;taolunchengyuanguonigongtongkaizhandejilianggongzuobingjinxingjutixiediao;zhidingshidangjianyi;zhunbeiguojijiliangdahuiyouguanbaogao。

红包扫雷guojijiliangweiyuanhuiweiyuanyouguojijiliangdahuixuanjuchansheng。zi2014niandi25jieguojijiliangdahuiqishixingrenqizhixuanju,keyilianxuanlianren,xuanjubiaozhunzonghekaolvlediyudaibiaoxing、chengyuanguogongxian、weiyuangerenjishunenglidehubuxingdeng。guojijiliangweiyuanhuiweiyuanduoweishijiezhimingzhuanjia,cengbaokuoyuansuzhouqibiaodechuanglizhemenjieliefu,yijiwuweinuobeierhuojiangdezhe。2018niandi26jieguojijiliangdahuixuanjuchanshengde18mingweiyuanfenbielaizieluosi、xibanya、moxige、faguo、zhongguo、agenting、xinjiapo、nanfei、wukelan、meiguo、hanguo、yidali、ruishi、helan、yingguo、jianada、riben、deguo,renqicong2019nian3yuekaishi,gong4nian。zhuxiweinanfeiguojiajiliangyuanfuyuanzhangwynand louwboshi。guojijiliangweiyuanhuishechangsheju,youzhuxi、mishuzhangheliangweifuzhuxizucheng,shiqichangshejuecejigou。

zhongguozi1979nianqizaiguojijiliangweiyuanhuizhongzhanyouyixi,gongyouguosanweiweiyuan,wangdahengyuanshi、gaojieyuanshixianhouyu1979zhi1992nian、1993zhi2009niandanrenweiyuan,zhongguojiliangkexueyanjiuyuanduanyuningboshizi2010nianqilianxusanjiedanrencipmweiyuan,tongshidanrenguojicewenxuezixunweiyuanhui(cct)zhuxi。

guojijiliangjudaomuqianyiyou140duoniandelishi。tadegongzuocongzuichudezhishimiheqianke,zhujiankuodadaoledianxue(1927)、guangduyufushedu(1937)、dianlifushe(1960)、shijian(1988)hehuaxue(2000),zaiciguochengzhong,guojijiliangweiyuanhuizhujianchenglilezixunweiyuanhui(consultative committee, cc)fuzexiediaokaizhangegezhuanyelingyudejilianggongzuo。

红包扫雷muqian,cipmgongxiasheshigezixunwei,qizhuyaozhizeshi: jiugailingyusuoyouyujiliangyouguandekexueshixiangxiangcipmtichujianyi;canyuguojijilianghurenxieyi(cipm mra)deyunxing,tebieshifuzezuzhiguojiguanjianbidui。

红包扫雷cipmxiashedeshigezixunweiyuanhui:

shengxue、chaoshenghezhendongzixunweiyuanhui(ccauv)

红包扫雷diancizixunweiyuanhui(ccem)

zhangduzixunweiyuanhui(ccl)

zhilianghexiangguanliangzixunweiyuanhui(ccm)

红包扫雷guangduhefusheduzixunweiyuanhui(ccpr)

wuzhideliang(huaxueheshengwujiliang)zixunweiyuanhui(ccqm)

dianlifushezixunweiyuanhui(ccri)

wenduzixunweiyuanhui(cct)

shijianpinlvzixunweiyuanhui(cctf)

红包扫雷danweizhizixunweiyuanhui(ccu)

zixunweizhuxiyibancongguojijiliangweiyuanhuiweiyuanzhongchansheng。chengyuanweizaibenjilianglingyujuyoushijiexianjinshuipingdezhengshichengyuanguodeguojiajiliangyuan,tongshiyunxusuoyouzhengshichengyuanguozhipaigailingyuguojiajiliangjigoudedaibiaozuoweiguanchayuancanjia。zixunweixiashegongzuozu,shizixunweikaizhangelingyujishugongzuodezhuti。chuccwai,guojijiliangweiyuanhuihaigenjugongzuoxuyaoshelifenweiyuanhui、tebiegongzuozu、lianhegongzuozu。zhongguoshiquanbu10geccchengyuan,zhongguojiliangkexueyanjiuyuanduanyuningboshizi2012nianqidanrencctzhuxi。